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The Vancouver referencing style was previously known as the ICMJE Recommendations (Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals). It was developed in the year 1978, in Vancouver. Do you need a brief overview of this particular style of referencing? Let’s delve into the primary context of this blog, a complete guide to perfecting this style of referencing. Take some time out to read through the in-depth explanation of each of the technical elements.

Vancouver Reference – A Technical Know How

While using the Vancouver referencing in text, it is imperative that you develop a thorough knowledge about the technicalities associated with it. Here’s a comprehensive guide to Vancouver in Text Referencing for you. Have a look:

Avoid the use of personal communication: Avoid the use of personal communication as a reference. However, there can be an exception if the information you are trying to provide is rare and essential (something which is unavailable from public sources). You must consider avoiding the inclusion of personal interviews, telephonic communication, emails and class handouts in the reference list.

Keep hard copies for your records: Even though the internet is a reliable platform in today’s world, certain websites tend to delete information or replace it. Thus, it is recommended that you keep a hard copy of the retrieved information for future reference.

Place citations carefully: You must consider placing the in-text citation numbers in your Vancouver reference work after a relevant and significant sentence. The most important part of this particular context is consistency. If you are using Vancouver in text referencing, do not break the flow and include all citations in an organized manner.

Place reference numbers in parenthesis: Remember, references are supposed to be numbered consecutively, maintaining the order they were previously mentioned in. You should consider placing each of the reference numbers in parenthesis throughout legends, tables and texts.

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How to Use the Vancouver Format while Citing Multiple Authors and Sources?

This is yet another critical aspect of Vancouver style referencing. If you are wondering how to use the format in your academic work while citing multiple authors and sources, then here’s something for you:

  • If the work has more than one author, you should use the last name of the first author followed by “et al.”

For example: Dawson et al [3] found that the water body tends to dry up during the day, making it difficult for the villagers, as they have to walk a mile to find another resource.

  • When citing multiple sources in a sentence, consider including reference numbers for each of the sources cited. Remember, there should be no space in between and the numbers are supposed to be separated by commas.

For example: Previous research [4,6,9] confirms the villagers are gradually trying to adopt the functionality of machine-driven water resources, as a permanent remedy to the dire straits.

  • You must also consider separating consecutive numbers by a dash.

How to Compose a Reference List in Vancouver Style?

Are you worried about “adding reference lists in Vancouver referencing style”? Simply read through the following suggestions listed below, and consider implementing the same in your papers.

  • Always remember, you should never use the symbol “&”in between the names of the authors.
  • You can use capital letters for the words that come in capitalized format.
  • You should only use capital letters while writing the first word in a sentence. The name of the books and journals should not be placed or italicized in a quotation. The titles of the journals are supposed to be abbreviated.
  • Page numbers are meant to be abbreviated to “p”. For example, pages 22-28 would be written as p. 22-28.

More Examples

Journal Article: Fernandez C. The world of medicine: of ancient ages and the modern times. Journal of Medical Science. 2001 Apr2; 31(2):37-82.

Electronic Journal Article: Smith D, Dawson B, Miller S, Lewis C, Walker R, Crawford G, et al. The role of paramedics in general healthcare[Internet]. 2011 Feb [cited 2001 Feb 26]; 51(2):11-6. Available from: DOI: 11.1004/jcu.28880

Book: Crawford P, Brown G, Warne J. The history of vaccination. D. Becker & Sons; 2001 Apr 16.

Now that you know how to use Vancouver style citation in academic works, make it a point to implement each of the strategies mentioned above. Reference to perfection and score the best grades.

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Most Popular FAQs Searched By Students

Question: Is Vancouver a referencing style?

Answer: Yes, Vancouver referencing is a style to cite sources as per the author–number system. As per the citation style, you are required to use numbers within the text and provide the sources corresponding to them in the reference list.

Here is an example:

The world has seen a rise in the COVID positive cases by 28% in the month of June alone (1).

 In Reference list - 1. (Source)

Question: When to use Vancouver referencing?

Answer: Vancouver referencing style is usually used in the disciplines and sub-disciplines that fall under physical sciences. Apart from the Harvard referencing style, this style is the only alternative used in the field of medicine. Specifically, Vancouver style is used by Medline and PubMed.

If you are pursuing a branch of physical sciences or medicine, you can use our tool to create a bibliography in Vancouver style for you.

Question: How do you reference a website in Vancouver style?

Answer: Follow these steps to cite a website in the Vancouver referencing style:

  • Name of the title site
  • [Internet]
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher’s name
  • [updated year month date; cited year month date]
  • Available from: URL

Here is an example of the same: (1) Statt N. Elon Musk launches Neuralink, a venture to merge the human brain with AI. Available from: [Accessed 2 April 2019].

Question: Is APA same as Vancouver?

Answer: Now, APA and Vancouver styles of referencing have different purposes and rules. The Vancouver style is used in the field of Physical Sciences, Medicine and at times in Technology. On the contrary, the APA style is used in the areas of Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities.

Vancouver referencing style follows the author-number citation rule. However, the APA style was inspired by the Harvard style of referencing and has an author-date structure.

Question: Does a Vancouver referencing tool give an accurate style of writing?

Answer: Yes, our referencing tool delivers accurate results. Creating a referencing list as per Vancouver style can be a hassle if you do not have proper knowledge of the format and rules of the style.

In that case, you can use the Vancouver referencing tool of to create accurate citation lists within a few minutes. Just feed in the sources and get the solution in a downloadable format.

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